MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF METALS AND METAL ALLOYS

Ultimate tensile strength (UTS), often shortened to tensile strength (TS) or ultimate strength,is the maximum stress that a material can withstand while being stretched or pulled before failing or breaking.

Data charts relating to the Ultimate Tensile strength of various metals and there alloys, including Structural steels, Free cutting steels, Steels for quenching and tempering, Stainless steels, Cast iron, Spring steels, Bearing steels, Bearing bronze, Unalloyed carbon steels, Stainless steels (RVS) and Grey Cast Iron.

Ultimate Tensile Strength Charts

Standard mechanical properties Re = yield stress, yield strength or yield point, in MPa or N/mm2, corresponding to the end
of the elastic region Rm = ultimate tensile strength, in MPa or N/mm2.

STRUCTURAL STEEL HOT ROLLED, NON ALLOY STEELS
MATERIAL Re[MPa] Rm[MPa]
NAME nr d <16 < 40 < 63 < 80 < 100 < 3 < 100
S235JR 1.0038 235 225 215 215 215 360-510 360-510
S235JO 1.0114 235 225 215 215 215 360-510 360-510
S235J2 1.0117 235 225 215 215 215 360-510 360-510
S275JR 1.0044 275 265 255 245 235 430-580 410-560
S275JO 1.0143 275 265 255 245 235 430-580 410-560
S275J2 1.0145 275 265 255 245 235 430-580 410-560
S355JR 1.0045 355 345 335 325 315 510-680 470-630
S355J0 1.0553 355 345 335 325 315 510-680 470-630
S355J2 1.0577 355 345 335 325 315 510-680 470-630
S355K2 1.0596 355 345 335 325 315 510-680 470-630
S450J0 1.0590 450 430 410 390 380 - 550-720
E295 1.0050 295 285 490-660 470-610
E335 1.0060 335 325 590-770 570-710
E360 1.0070 360 355 690-900 670-830

E295...E360: bearing and drive shafts, wear parts in natural hardness.

STRUCTURAL STEEL HOT ROLLED, NON ALLOY, NORMALISED, WELDABLE FINE GRAIN
MATERIAL Re[MPa] Rm[MPa] A
NAME nr d < 16 < 40 < 63 < 80 < 100 < 100 %
S275N 1.0490 275 265 255 245 235 370-510 23-24
S275NL 1.0491 275 265 255 245 235 370-510 23-24
S355N 1.0545 355 345 335 325 315 470-630 21-22
S355NL 1.0546 355 345 335 325 315 470-630 21-22
S420N 1.8902 420 400 390 370 360 520-680 18-19
S420NL 1.8912 420 400 390 370 360 520-680 18-19
S460N 1.8901 460 440 430 410 400 540-720 17
S460NL 1.8903 460 440 430 410 400 540-720 17
STRUCTURAL STEEL THERMO-MECHANICALLY ROLLED, WELDABLE FINE GRAIN
MATERIAL Re[MPa] Rm[MPa] A
NAME nr < 16 < 40 < 63 < 80 < 100 < 40 < 63 < 80 < 100 %
S275M 1.8818 275 265 255 245 245 370-530 360-520 350-510 350-510 24
S275ML 1.8819 275 265 255 245 245 370-530 360-520 350-510 350-510 24
S355M 1.8823 355 345 335 325 325 470-630 450-610 440-600 440-600 22
S355ML 1.8834 355 345 335 325 325 470-630 450-610 440-600 440-600 22
S420M 1.8825 420 400 390 380 370 520-680 500-660 480-640 470-630 19
S420ML 1.8836 420 400 390 380 370 520-680 500-660 480-640 470-630 19
S460M 1.8827 460 440 430 410 400 540-720 530-710 510-690 500-680 17
S460ML 1.8838 460 440 430 410 400 540-720 530-710 510-690 500-680 17
FREE CUTTING STEEL NOT INTENDED FOR HEAT TREATMENT
NAME nr Diam[mm] Hardness[HB] Rm[MPa]
11SMn30
11SMNPb30
11SMn37
11SMnPb37
1.0715
1.0718
1.0736
1.0737
5<10 - 380-570
10<d<16 - 380-570
16<d<40 112-169 380-570
40<d<63 109-169 370-570
63<d<100 107-154 360-520
FREE CUTTING STEEL CASE HARDENING, UNTREATED
NAME nr Diam [mm] Hardness HB Rm [MPa]
10S20
10SPb20
1.0721
1.0722
5<10 - 360-530
10<d<16 - 360-530
16<d<40 107-156 360-530
40<d<63 107-156 360-530
63<d<100 105-146 350-490
15SMn13 1.0725 5<10 - 430-610
10<d<16 - 430-600
16<d<40 128-178 430-600
40<d<63 128-172 430-580
6 3<d<100 125-160 420-540
FREE CUTTING STEEL DIRECT HARDENING
UNTREATED QUENCHED and TEMPERED
MATERIAL NAME Diam d Hardness Rm Re Rm A
  nr mm HB [MPa] MPa MPa %min
35S20
35SPb20
1.0726
1.0756
5=d=10 - 550-720 430 630-780 15
10<d=16 - 550-700 430 630-780 15
16<d=40 154-201 520-680 380 600-750 16
40<d=63 154-198 520-670 320 550-700 17
63<d=100 149-193 500-650 320 550-700 17
36SMn14
36SMnPb14
1.0764
1.0765
5=10 - 580-770 480 700-850 14
10<d=16 - 580-770 460 700-850 14
16<d=40 166-222 560-750 420 670-820 15
40<d=63 166-219 560-740 400 640-790 16
63<d=100 163-219 550-740 360 570-720 17
38SMn28
38SMnPb28
1.0760
1.0761
5=10 - 580-780 480 700-850 15
10<d=16 - 580-750 460 700-850 15
16<d=40 166-216 560-730 420 700-850 15
40<d=63 166-216 560-730 400 700-850 16
63<d=100 163-207 550-700 380 630-800 16
44SMn28
44SMnPb28
1.0762
1.0763
5=10 - 630-900 520 700-850 16
10<d=16 - 630-850 480 700-850 16
16<d=40 187-242 630-820 420 700-850 16
40<d=63 184-235 620-790 410 700-850 16
63<d=100 181-231 610-780 400 700-850 16
46S20
46SPb20
1.0727
1.0757
5=10 - 590-800 490 700-850 12
10<d=16 - 590-780 490 700-850 12
16<d=40 175-225 590-760 430 650-800 13
40<d=63 172-216 580-730 370 630-780 14
63<d=100 166-211 560-710 370 630-780 14
STEELS FOR QUENCHING AND TEMPERING (QUENCHED AND TEMPERED) NON-ALLOY STEEL
d < 16
t = < 8
16 < d = < 40
8 < t = < 20
MATERIAL NAME Re Rm A Re Rm A
  nr MPa MPa % MPa MPa %
C35 1.0501 430 630-780 17 380 600-750 19
C40 1.0511 460 650-800 16 400 630-780 18
C45 1.0503 490 700-850 14 430 650-800 16
C55 1.0535 550 800-950 12 490 750-900 14
C60 1.0601 580 850-1000 11 520 800-950 13
SPECIAL STEELS
C22E 1.1151 340 500-650 20 290 470-620 22
C35E 1.1181 430 630-780 17 380 600-750 19
C40E 1.1186 460 650-800 16 400 630-780 18
C45E 1.1191 490 700-850 14 430 650-800 16
C50E 1.1206 520 750-900 13 460 700-850 15
C55E 1.1203 550 800-950 12 490 750-900 14
C60E 1.1221 580 850-1000 11 520 800-950 13
28Mn6 1.1170 590 800-950 13 490 700-850 15

(Source)

STEELS FOR QUENCHING AND TEMPERING (NORMALISED)
NON-ALLOY QUALITY STEELS
d <16
t =< 16
16 < d = < 100
16 < t = < 100
100 < d = < 250
100 < t = < 250
MATERIAL NAME Re Rm A Re Rm A Re Rm A
  nr MPa MPa % MPa MPa % MPa MPa %
C35 1.0501 300 550 18 270 520 19 245 500 19
C40 1.0511 320 580 16 290 550 17 260 530 17
C45 1.0503 340 620 14 305 580 16 275 560 16
C55 1.0535 370 680 11 330 640 12 300 620 12
C60 1.0601 380 710 10 340 670 11 310 650 11
SPECIAL STEELS
C22E 1.1151 240 430 24 210 410 25 - - -
C35E 1.1181 300 550 18 270 520 19 245 500 19
C40E 1.1186 320 580 16 290 550 17 260 530 17
C45E 1.1191 340 620 14 305 580 16 275 560 16
C50E 1.1206 355 650 13 320 610 14 290 590 14
C55E 1.1203 370 680 11 330 640 12 300 620 12
C60E 1.1221 380 710 10 340 670 11 310 650 11
28Mn6 1.1170 345 630 17 310 600 18 290 590 18
ALLOY STEEL (QUENCHED AND TEMPERED)
d <16
t =<8
16 < d = < 40
8 < t = < 20
MATERIAL NAME Re Rm A Re Rm A
  nr MPa MPa % MPa MPa %
38Cr2 1.7003 550 800-950 14 450 700-850 15
46Cr2 1.7006 650 900-1100 12 550 800-950 14
34Cr4 1.7033 700 900-1100 12 590 800-950 14
34CrS4 1.7037 700 900-1100 12 590 800-950 14
37Cr4 1.7034 750 950-1150 11 630 850-1000 13
37CrS4 1.7038 750 950-1150 11 630 850-1000 13
41Cr4 1.7035 800 1000-1200 11 660 900-1100 12
41CrS4 1.7039 800 1000-1200 11 660 900-1100 12
25CrMo4 1.7218 700 900-1100 12 600 800-950 14
25CrMoS4 1.7213 700 900-1100 12 600 800-950 14
34CrMo4 1.7220 800 1000-1200 11 650 900-1100 12
34CrMoS4 1.7226 800 1000-1200 11 650 900-1100 12
42CrMo4 1.7225 900 1100-1300 10 750 1000-1200 11
42CrMoS4 1.7227 900 1100-1300 10 750 1000-1200 11
50CrMo4 1.7228 900 1100-1300 9 780 1000-1200 10
34CrNiMo6 1.6582 1000 1200-1400 9 900 1100-1300 10
30CrNiMo6 1.6580 1050 1250-1450 9 1050 1250-1450 9
35NiCr6 1.5815 740 880-1080 12 740 880-1080 14
36NICrMo16 1.6773 1050 1250-1450 9 1050 1250-1450 9
39NiCrMo3 1.6510 785 980-1180 11 735 930-1130 11
30NiCrMo16-16 1.6747 880 1080-1230 10 880 1080-1230 10
51CrV4 1.8159 900 1100-1300 9 800 1000-1200 10
20MnB5 1.5530 700 900-1050 14 600 750-900 15
30MnB5 1.5531 800 950-1150 13 650 800-950 13
38MnB5 1.5532 900 1050- 1250 12 700 850-1050 12
27MnCrB5-2 1.7182 800 1000-1250 14 750 900-1150 14
33MnCrB5-2 1.7185 850 1050 1300 13 800 950-1200 13
39MnCrB5-2 1.7189 900 1100-1350 12 850 1050-1250 12

(Source)

STAINLESS STEEL
MATERIAL NAME Rm Re A
  nr ANSI MPa MPa %
X10CrNi18-8 1.4310 301 500...740 195...205 35...40
X8CrNiS-18-9 1.4305 303 500...700 190 35
X5CrNi18-10 1.4301 304 540...750 230 45
2CrNi19-11 1.4306 304L 520...660 250 45
2CrNi18-9 1.4307 304L 520...670 220 45
X5CrNiMo17-12-2 1.4401 316 540...680 195...205 35...40
X3CrNiMo17-13-3 1.4436 316 550...700 240 40
X2CrNiMo17-13-2 1.4404 316L 520...660 195 40
X2CrNiMo18-14-3 1.4435 316L 500...700 200 45
X6CrNiMoTi1712-2 1.4571 316Ti 540...680 215 40
X6CrNiTi18-10 1.4541 321 540...680 205 40
X12Cr13 1.4006 410 <600 20
X20Cr13 1.4021 420 <700 15
X30Cr13 1.4028 420 <740 15
X6Cr17 1.4016 430 440...590 255 20
X3CrTi17 1.4510 439 430...630 205 20
X2CrTiNb18 14509 441 430/630 250 20
X2CrNiMoN22-5-3 1.4462 duplex 640...880 480 25

Austenitic 3-series (3.04, 316...) - non-magnetic Ferritic and martensitic 4-series (405, 439...), magnetic,not intended for heath treatment

(Source)

CAST IRON
MATERIAL NAME Rm Re A E-modulus
  MPa MPa % GPa
EN-GJL-150 150...250 100...165 0.8...0.3 78...103
EN-GJL-200 200...300 130...195 0.8...0.3 88...113
EN-GJL-250 250...350 165...230 0.8...0.3 103...118
EN-GJL-300 300...400 195...260 0.8...0.3 108...137
EN-GJS-350-22-LT 350...400 220...280 30...22 160...185
EN-GJS-400-18-LT 400...450 250...300 27...18 160...185
EN-GJS-400-15 400...550 250...350 27...15 160...185
EN-GJS-450-10 450...600 310...410 20...10 160...185
EN-GJS-500-7 500...650 320...420 18...7 160...185
EN-GJS-600-3 600...750 370...480 8...3 160...185
EN-GJS-700-2 700...850 420...600 6...2 160...185
EN-GJS-800-2 800...1000 480...750 4...2 160...185

GJL (old GG), grey cast iron with lamellar graphite - the 250 and 300 are hard wearing. GJS (old GGG), grey cast iron with nodular graphite - high ductility, for heath treatment, from 500 hard wearing

(Source_1 , Source_2).

SPRING STEEL
MATERIAL nr Rm [MPa] E [GPa] G [GPa]
Spring steel (Music wire) 1.1200 2220 - 820 log d 206 815
Stainless steel (ANSI 301) 1.4310 0.85(2220 - 820 log d) 190 73

The mechanical properties relate to the diameter of the wire. As a rule of thumb Rm=2220 - 820 log d, according EN 10270-1-SH for steel nr. 1.1200. For stainless steel 1.4310 the tensile strength is 15% less, according EN 10270-3-NS. The max bending stress is taken 0.7Rm, the max torsional stress 0.4Rm, when statically loaded. Statically loaded is defined for up to 20 to 50 thousand load cycles. The max stress is taken 40% less when loaded for more than 10 million load cycles.

BEARING STEELS
MATERIAL NAME Untreated Quenched and tempered
  nr Rm [MPa] Re [MPa] Rm [MPa] Re [MPa]
100Cr2 1.3501
100Cr6 1.3505
100CrMn6 1.3520
16CrNoMo6 1.3531
19MnCr5 1.3523
44Cr2 1.3561

(Source)

BEARING BRONZE
Bronze EN Re Rm HB oil lubricated
CuSn7ZnPb 2.1090 120 270 >70 general bearing bronze
Cu Sn12 2.1052 140 280 >90 tin bronze for high load
CuSn12Pb 2.1061 140 280 >85 lead bronze, improved slide ability
CuSn12Ni 2.1060 170 300 >90 with nickel, for worm gears
CuPb15Sn 2.1182 110 220 >65 soft, suitable for water lubrication
Shaft-hardness >HB165, shaft material E335, roughness Ra<1µm, pmax<10MPa (<0.2m/s)

(Source)

UN-ALLOYED CARBON STEEL
GRADE UTS [MPa]> 0.2% YS [MPa]
EN e3) =16 e3) > 16 e3) < 3 e3) =3
S235JR 1.0037 235 225 360 - 510 360 - 510
S235J0 1.0114 235 225 360 - 510 360 - 510
S235J2 1.0116 235 225 360 - 510 340 - 470
S275JR 1.0044 275 265 430 - 580 410 - 560
S275J0 1.0143 275 265 430 - 580 410 - 560
S275J2 1.0144 275 265 430 - 580 410 - 560
S355JR 1.0045 355 345 510 - 680 470 - 630
S355J0 1.0553 355 345 510 - 680 470 - 630
S355J2 1.0570 355 345 510 - 680 470 - 630
S355K2 1.0595 355 345 510 - 680 470 - 630
E295 1.0050 295 285 490 - 660 470 - 610
E335 1.0060 335 325 590 - 770 570 - 710
E360 1.0070 360 355 690 - 900 670 - 830

S235...S355: structural parts, good weld ability and cutting.
E295...E360: drive shafts, wear parts in natural hardness.

STAINLESS STEEL (RVS)
Grade UTS 0.2% YS
DIN EN MPa MPa %
X10CrNi18-8 1.4310 301 500...740 195...205 35...40
X8CrNiS-18-9 1.4305 303 500...700 190 35
X5CrNi18-10 1.4301 304 540...750 230 45
2CrNi19-11 1.4306 304L 520...660 250 45
2CrNi18-9 1.4307 304L 520...670 220 45
X5CrNiMo17-12-2 1.4401 316 540...680 195...205 35...40
X3CrNiMo17-13-3 1.4436 316 550...700 240 40
X2CrNiMo17-13-2 1.4404 316L 520...660 195 40
X2CrNiMo18-14-3 1.4435 316L 500...700 200 45
X6CrNiMoTi1712-2 1.4571 316Ti 540...680 215 40
X6CrNiTi18-10 1.4541 321 540...680 205 40
X12Cr13 1.4006 410 <600 20
X20Cr13 1.4021 420 <700 15
X30Cr13 1.4028 420 <740 15
X6Cr17 1.4016 430 440...590 255 20
X3CrTi17 1.4510 439 430...630 205 20
X2CrTiNb18 14509 441 430/630 250 20
X2CrNiMoN22-5-3 1.4462 duplex 640...880 480 25

Austenitic 3-series (3.04, 316...) - non magnetic Ferritic and martensitic 4-series (405, 439...), magnetic,suitable for heath treatment

(Source)

CAST IRON (GREY)
GRADE Rm 0.2% YS E-modulus
MPa MPa % GPa
EN-GJL-150 150...250 100...165 0.8...0.3 78...103
EN-GJL-200 200...300 130...195 0.8...0.3 88...113
EN-GJL-250 250...350 165...230 0.8...0.3 103...118
EN-GJL-300 300...400 195...260 0.8...0.3 108...137
EN-GJS-350-22-LT 350...400 220...280 30...22 160...185
EN-GJS-400-18-LT 400...450 250...300 27...18 160...185
EN-GJS-400-15 400...550 250...350 27...15 160...185
EN-GJS-450-10 450...600 310...410 20...10 160...185
EN-GJS-500-7 500...650 320...420 18...7 160...185
EN-GJS-600-3 600...750 370...480 8...3 160...185
EN-GJS-700-2 700...850 420...600 6...2 160...185
EN-GJS-800-2 800...1000 480...750 4...2 160...185

GJL (old GG), grey cast iron with lamellar graphite -the 250 and 300 have very good wear resistance. GJS (old GGG), grey cast iron with nodular graphite - high ductility, suitable for heat treatment, from 500 hard wearing, gears

(Source_1 , Source_2).

MATERIAL PROPERTIES OF FASTENERS
MATERIAL Rm [MPa]
Austenitic RVS
A1, A2, A3,A4, A5
500 - soft
700 - work hardened
800 - work hardened
Martensitic RVS
C1
500 - soft
700 -
1100
CU1
CU2
CU3
CU4
CU5
CU6
CU7
240
440
440
470
590
440
640

(Source)

RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN SHEAR AND TENSILE STRENGTHS
MATERIAL SHEARING YIELDING
WROUGHT AND ALLOY STEEL UST ≈ 0,75 x UTS SSY ≈ 0,58 x YS
DUCTILE IRON UST ≈ 0,90 x UTS SSY ≈ 0,75 x YS
MALLEABLE IRON - PEARLITIC UST ≈ 1,0 x UTS -
WROUGHT IRON UST ≈ 0,83 x UTS -
CAST IRON UST ≈ 1,3 x UTS -
COPPER AND ITS ALLOYS UST ≈ 0,65 x UTS -
ALUMINIUM AND ITS ALLOYS UST ≈ 0,65 x UTS SSY ≈ 0,55 x YS
UTS ULTIMATE TENSILE STRESS
UST ULTIMATE SHEAR STRESS
SSY SHEAR STRESS YEILD
YS TENSILE YIELD STRESS